Communication, Between Skills and Competence

Communication, Between Skills and Competence

Communication, Between Skills and Competence – Talking about communication is certainly not something foreign to us. Communication is considered a natural ability in life, one can communicate without having to think too complicated. Although it is felt to be a natural possession, communication is not an ability that appears suddenly or is innate.

Communication skills arise because of learning and practicing activities. As can be seen in a toddler, they can communicate with others through the process of listening and then trying to repeat it until they become capable. Until now communication has become a basic need for someone to be able to interact with others in various forms.

In general, communication is a process of conveying information from one person to another and with communication interactions can be established with each other. Communication is a means for a person to be able to connect with the surrounding environment.

Along with the development of one’s interaction with other people, communication is carried out not only to be connected to each other but communication is also a means of conveying a message, idea, or thought result so that it can be understood and accepted by others. Harmonious understanding and acceptance between the messenger and the recipient of the message is a sign of successful communication.

In organizations and work, communication is one of the important things that must be mastered by organizational leaders and members or employees in it. Communication is considered very necessary in the decision-making process, for example when gathering ideas, communication can also help coordinate the achievement of work targets.

Communication that is formed between members and organizational leaders can also increase cooperation and collaboration. Communication is even considered to be able to increase work productivity, as well as save time and costs, of course, if communication is carried out effectively. That’s why it’s not surprising that communication is one of the managerial competencies needed in various types of positions, including for a State Civil Apparatus (ASN) as stipulated in Permenpan-RB Number 38 of 2017 concerning Competency Standards for State Civil Apparatus Positions.

Of course, we often communicate to convey messages to other people, be it friends, superiors, or anyone else. Communication feels easy to do, but is it the same way of conveying messages aimed at different people? Can sensitive messages be delivered in the same way as casual messages? From these questions it seems that communication is not entirely natural.

Communication needs to be done in a certain way that is designed according to its purpose. Facing various situations and conditions, communication is not just a means of connecting one person to another, but communication can play a role beyond that.

When communicating the most important thing is to make sure the message can be conveyed appropriately, regardless of the situation and condition being faced. This is where competence is needed to communicate the message well.

When the word competency is followed by the word communication, the discussion is centered on an ability to communicate in an appropriate and effective way in a given situation. Cooley & Roach (1984) defines communication competence as knowledge of effective and appropriate communication patterns and the ability to use and adapt this knowledge in various contexts.

It is often difficult to distinguish between communication as a competency or communication as a skill. Around us there are so many trainings that teach communication skills (Communication Skills Training) for example active listening, interpersonal communication, verbal and nonverbal communication, oral and written communication, presentations, assertive communication, and so on.

Communication skills or more often we call communication skills are popular and in great demand because they are considered to have a positive influence on achieving success. Then what about communication as a competency? Is a person skilled enough to be successful in communicating or must be competent to communicate?

In 1980 American professors named Brian Spitzberg and William Cupach developed a model of communication competence and stated that there were three things that became elements of the competency itself.

The first element is motivation, motivation explains the reason or purpose of someone communicating. For competent people, communication is carried out to achieve certain goals, not just conveying or receiving messages. Communication is carried out by paying attention to the situation and the direction of communication is appropriate and aligned with the goals set.

The second element is knowledge or understanding of what to do when communicating. For example, knowledge of formal and informal communication styles, use of verbal and nonverbal language/gestures, as well as other knowledge such as culture, values, and norms that influence the communication that will be carried out.

The third element is skill, namely the ability to demonstrate appropriate communication behavior as required. Communication skills are characterized by the ability to convey information in a simple, non-ambiguous way and listen to and perceive information appropriately.

Referring to the description, skills are one of the elements that make up competence. When associated with communication, communication skills are a specific skill as a result of learning to convey and receive messages effectively, while communication competence places more emphasis on how a person’s behavior in communicating is in accordance with their role so as to achieve the expected goals.

Competence determines how a person uses the skills they have to achieve success. Someone who is competent in communicating will be able to determine the appropriate pattern of communication in various situations and conditions and be able to adjust his actions accordingly.

In general, competency can be understood as how a person applies and uses the knowledge and skills possessed in line with the performance criteria needed to achieve goals and according to their role (Bartram, 2004) [3]. The cognitive element of competence includes knowledge about how to do something and understand why it needs to be done (Hargie, 2011).

Competence is not a skill even though the two are almost similar and coincide. Skills are learned whereas competence is an inherent quality in individuals that combines skills with knowledge. Someone who is skilled at communicating is likely to be seen both verbally and nonverbally when conveying a message, but may not necessarily be said to be competent at communicating when juxtaposed with the demands of his role.

Some of the criteria that indicate someone is competent in communicating based on The National Communication Association (NCA) are being able to convey ideas clearly, being able to communicate ethically, recognizing the right time to communicate, knowing the purpose of communicating, being able to select appropriate and effective communication media, demonstrating credibility. , able to identify and manage misunderstandings, able to manage conflicts, open to other people’s views, and listen to others attentively.

Communication competence involves an understanding of the context, scope, and framework for conveying messages. In simple terms, a person is said to be competent in communicating when he conveys a message by being aware of his capacity or position, understands the contents of the message associated with a specific purpose, and uses communication techniques skillfully by taking into account the characteristics of the other person.

Communication is something that is usually done in everyday life, almost all activities in work involve communication. Even though it is often done, communication competence does not necessarily increase. Communication competence has a very close relationship with communication skills because it is one of its constituent elements.

Thus one way to have good communication competence is to improve communication skills. Excited to learn and practice to become more competent in communication!

5 Types of Learning Methodologies that are Often Used

5 Types of Learning Methodologies that are Often Used

5 Types of Learning Methodologies that are Often Used – Learning methodology is a way of carrying out activities between educators and students when interacting in the learning process. Educators need to know and study teaching methods so that they can convey material and be well understood by students.

Before a lecturer uses a method in the learning process, a teacher must first know several factors that must be used as a basis for consideration in selecting a learning method, namely:

  • Guided by the Goals of Individual Differences of Students
  • Master’s ability
  • Nature of Learning Materials
  • Class Situation
  • Strengths and Weaknesses of the Method
  • Complete Facilities

Types of Learning Methods Often Used by Teachers
Teaching methods are practiced when teaching and are made as attractive as possible so that students gain knowledge effectively and efficiently. The following are teaching methods in the learning process:

1. Conventional Learning Methods / Lecture Methods

One type of learning method that is often used is the lecture method. That is, this method is applied by lecturing or conveying information orally to students. This method is the most practical and economical method, does not require a lot of tools.

This method can be used to overcome the scarcity of literature or information reference sources because the purchasing power of students is out of reach. However, this method also has some advantages and disadvantages.

a. Disadvantages of Conventional Learning Methods

The following are the disadvantages of the lecture learning method, namely:

  • Students become passive.
  • The learning process is boring and students are sleepy.
  • There is an element of compulsion to listen.
  • Students with a visual learning style will be bored and unable to receive information or knowledge, for children with an auditory learning style this may be quite interesting.
  • Evaluation of the learning process is difficult to control, because there are no clear achievement points.
  • The teaching process becomes verbalism or focuses on understanding words only.

b. Advantages of Conventional Learning Methods

Meanwhile, the advantages of the lecture learning method include:

  • Encourage students to be more focused.
  • The teacher can fully control the class.
  • Teachers can deliver a wide range of lessons.
  • Can be followed by a large number of students.
  • Easy to implement.

2. Question and Answer Learning Method

The Question and Answer method is a teaching method that allows for direct communication that is two-way traffic, because at the same time there is dialogue between the teacher and students. The teacher asks the students answer or the students ask the teacher answers. In this communication, there is a direct reciprocal relationship between the teacher and students.

a. The advantages of the Question and Answer Learning Method

Following are the advantages of the question and answer method, including:

  • Questions can attract and focus students’ attention.
  • Stimulating students to train and develop thinking power, including memory power.
  • Develop students’ courage and skills in answering and expressing opinions.

b. Weaknesses of the Question and Answer Learning Method

The following are the disadvantages of the question and answer method, including:

  • Students feel afraid if the teacher is not able to encourage students to be brave by creating an atmosphere that is not tense.
  • It is not easy to make questions that are appropriate to the level of thinking and easy for students to understand.
  • Often wastes a lot of time.
  • Lack of time to ask questions to all students.

3. Demonstration Learning Method

Demonstration and experiment methods are very effective teaching methods, because they help students to find answers on their own based on true facts. The demonstration in question is a teaching method that shows how the process of something happening.

The demonstration method is a fairly effective teaching method because it helps students to get answers by observing a particular process or event.

a. Advantages of Demonstration Learning Methods

Following are the advantages of the demonstration method, including:

  • Avoid verbalism.
  • Students more easily understand what is learned.
  • The teaching process is more interesting.
  • Students are stimulated to actively observe, adapt theory to reality and try to do it themselves.

b. Weaknesses of Demonstration Learning Methods

The following are the disadvantages of the demonstration method, including:

  • Requires special teacher skills.
  • Lack of facilities.
  • takes a long time.

4. Discussion Learning Method

The discussion method is a teaching method that is closely related to learning problem solving. This method is also usually done in groups or group discussions.

The Discussion Method takes the form of regularly exchanging information, opinions and elements of experience with the intention of obtaining the same, clearer and more thorough understanding of something or to prepare and finalize a joint decision.

a. Advantages of Conventional Learning Methods Discussion

Following are the advantages of the discussion method, including:

  • Stimulate the creativity of students in the form of ideas, ideas, crafts and new breakthroughs in problem solving.
  • Develop mutual respect for the opinions of others.
  • Widening knowledge.
  • Fostering the habit of deliberation in solving a problem.

b. Weaknesses of the Discussion Learning Method

The following are the disadvantages of the discussion method, including:

  • It takes a long time.
  • Cannot be used for large groups.
  • Participants receive limited information.
  • Mastered by people who like to talk or want to stand out.

5. Field Trip Learning Methods

A variety of learning methods that are often used is the field trip learning method. Field-trip method, field trip here means visits outside the classroom. So the field trip above does not take place far from school and does not require a long time. Field trips for a long time and in distant places are called study tours.

a. Advantages of Field Trip Learning Methods

Following are the advantages of the field trip method:

  • Have modern teaching principles by utilizing the real environment.
  • Make relevance between what is learned with the needs in society.
  • Stimulate student creativity.
  • Study material is broader and actual.

b. Weaknesses of Field Trip Learning Methods

The following are the weaknesses of the field trip method, including:

  • Lack of facilities.
  • Need careful planning.
  • Coordination is needed so that time does not overlap.
  • Ignoring the element of study.
  • Difficulty managing large numbers of students.

Learning Theories: Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning

Learning Theories: Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning

Learning Theories: Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning

The concept of learning is quite comprehensive as it covers a broad range of activities. In many books, the theories of learning are also regarded as kinds of learning. The theories of learning are an organized set of principles that explain how individuals attain, retain or recall the learnt knowledge. Learning theories establish the conceptual framework for explaining how information absorption, processing and retention take place during learning. Human learning is influenced by a gamut of factors like Emotional, Cognitive, Past Experiences and Environmental factors. Learning theories prescribe the right format or methodologies of learning for making the learning effective and more impactful.

During early 20th century, many psychologists became increasingly interested in understanding the relevance of learning from a scientific perspective. For a scientific orientation, the study of psychology gave importance to only those variables which were quantifiable and measurable. Environmental influences like, reinforcements, associations, observations and punishments influence the learning process. The key learning theories are Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning and Social Learning. Let’s have a closer look at all these three major theories of learning.

Classical Conditioning Theory and Learning

The key premises of Classical Conditioning theory was established by Russian Physiologist named Ivan Pavlov, who first discovered the crucial principles of classical learning theory with the help of an experiment done on dogs to study their digestive processes. The Nobel Prize laureate of 1904, while studying the digestive processes in dogs came across a very interesting observation during his experimentation. He noticed that his subject would begin to salivate by seeing the lab assistant with white lab coats entering into the room before being fed. Though Pavlov’s discovery is originally an accidental discovery, but later with the help of his experiments the classical conditioning theory came into existence. His Classical conditioning theory played a crucial role in explaining the important psychological concepts like learning and equally established the foundation for the behavioural school of thought. Behaviourism is based on two major assumptions:

  1. Learning takes place as a result of the interactions with the environmental forces.
  2. The environmental forces play a key role in shaping the behaviour.

According to Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning theory, learning takes place because of association which is established between a previously neutral stimulus and a natural stimulus. It should be noted, that Classical Conditioning places a neutral stimulus before the naturally occurring reflexes. In his experiment, he tried to pair the natural stimulus that is food with a bell sound. The dogs would salivate with the natural occurrence of food, but after repeated associations, the dogs salivated just by hearing the sound of the bell alone. The focus of Classical Conditioning theory is on automatic and naturally occurring behaviours.

Key Principles of Classical Conditioning Theory

Acquisition: This is the starting stage of learning during which a response is established firstly and then gradually strengthened. During the acquisition phase, a neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus which can automatically or naturally trigger or generate a response without any learning. Once this association is established between the neutral stimulus and unconditioned stimulus, the subject will exhibit a behavioural response which is now known as conditioned stimulus. Once a behavioural response is established, the same can be gradually strengthened or reinforced to make sure that the behaviour is learnt.

  1. Extinction: Extinction is expected to take place when the intensity of a conditioned response decreases or disappears completely. In classical conditioning, this occurs when a conditioned stimulus is no longer associated or paired with the unconditioned stimulus.
  2. Spontaneous Recovery: When a learnt or a conditioned response suddenly reappears after a brief resting period or suddenly re-emerges after a short period of extinction, the process is considered as a spontaneous recovery.
  3. Stimulus Generalization: It is the tendency of the conditioned stimulus to evoke the similar kind of responses once the responses have been conditioned, which occurs as a result of stimulus generalization.
  4. Stimulus Discrimination: Discrimination is the ability of the subject to discriminate between stimuli with other similar stimuli. It means, not responding to those stimuli which is not similar, but responding only to certain specific stimuli.

The theory of Classical Conditioning has several applications in the real-world. It is helpful for various pet trainers for helping them train their pets. Classical conditioning techniques can also be beneficial in helping people deal with their phobias or anxiety issues. The trainers or teachers can also put to practise the Classical Conditioning theory by building a positive or a highly motivated classroom environment for helping the students to overcome their phobias and deliver their best performance.

Operant Conditioning Theory and Learning

Renowned Behavioural Psychologist B.F. Skinner was the main proponent of Operant conditioning theory. It is for this reason that the Operant Conditioning is also known as Skinnerian Conditioning and Instrumental Conditioning. Just like Classical Conditioning, Instrumental/Operant Conditioning lays emphasis on forming associations, but these associations are established between behaviour and behavioural consequences. The theory stressed on the role of punishment or reinforcements for increasing or decreasing the probability of the same behaviour to be repeated in the future. But the condition is that the consequences must immediately follow a behavioural pattern. The focus of operant conditioning is on voluntary behavioural patterns.

Key Components of Operant Conditioning

  • Reinforcement: Reinforcements strengthen or increase the intensity of behaviour. This can be Positive and Negative.

Positive Reinforcement: When a favourable event or an outcome is associated with behaviour in the form of a reward or praise, it is called as positive reinforcement. For example, a boss may associate bonus with outstanding achievements at work.

Negative Reinforcement: This involves removal of an unfavourable or an unpleasant event after a behavioural outcome. In this case, the intensity of a response is strengthened by removing the unpleasant experiences.

  • Punishment: The objective of punishment is to decrease the intensity of a behavioural outcome, which may be negative or positive.

Positive Punishment: This involves application of punishment by presenting an unfavourable event or outcome in response to a behaviour. Spanking for an unacceptable behaviour is an example of positive punishment.

Negative Punishment: It is associated with the removal of a favourable event or an outcome in response to a behaviour which needs to be weakened. Holding the promotion of an employee for not being able to perform up to the expectations of the management can be an example of a negative punishment.

  • Reinforcement Schedules: According to Skinner, the schedule of reinforcement with focus on timing as well as the frequency of reinforcement, determined how quickly new behaviour can be learned and old behaviours can be altered.

Learning by Observation

According to Albert Bandura, learning cannot simply be based merely on associations or reinforcements which he has mentioned in his writings in his book Social Learning Theory which was published in 1977. Instead, his focus was on learning based on observation, which he has proven through his well known Bobo Doll experiment. He reckoned that children keenly observe their surroundings and the behaviour of people around them particularly their caregivers, teachers and siblings and try to imitate those behaviours in their day to day life. He also tried proving through his experiment that children can easily imitate the negative behaviours or actions.

Another important principle of Bandura’s Social Learning Theory was that learning something by way of observation, need not necessarily mean that it would lead to a change in the behaviour. This behavioural change is entirely influenced by the felt need or motivation of a person to endorse and adopt a behavioural change.

Key Steps involved in Observational Learning

  • Attention: Attention is very important for learning to take place effectively by following observational techniques. A novel concept or a unique idea is expected to attract the attention far more strongly than those which are routine or mundane in nature.
  • Retention: It is the ability to store the learnt information and recall it later, which is equally affected by a number of factors.
  • Reproduction: It involves practising or emulating the learnt behaviour, which will further lead to the advancement of the skill.
  • Motivation: Motivation to imitate the learnt behaviour of a model depends a lot on the reinforcement and punishment. For example, an office-goer may be motivated to report to office on time by seeing his colleague being rewarded for his punctuality and timeliness.

What Is Learning?

What Is Learning?

What Is Learning?

Learning is a relatively lasting change in behavior that is the result of experience. It is the acquisition of information, knowledge, and skills. When you think of learning, it’s easy to focus on formal education that takes place during childhood and early adulthood. But learning is an ongoing process that takes place throughout life and isn’t confined to the classroom.

Learning became a major focus of study in psychology during the early part of the twentieth century as behaviorism rose to become a major school of thought. Today learning remains an important concept in numerous areas of psychology, including cognitive, educational, social, and developmental psychology.

Psychologists study how learning occurs but also how social, emotional, cultural, and biological variables might influence the learning process.1

Learning Is an Active Process

Even if you learn something relatively quickly, it is still a multi-step process. To learn, you must encounter new information, pay attention to it, coordinate it with what you already know, store it in your memory, and apply it.2

For example, say you want to fix a running toilet. You might search for a how-to video, watch it to see if it addresses your need, and then use the instructions to make the repair. Or, consider a time when you came across an unfamiliar word while reading. If you stopped to look up the meaning, then you learned a new word.

The term “active learning” is often used to describe an interactive process, such as doing a hands-on experiment to learn a concept rather than reading about it. But “passive learning” (reading a text, listening to a lecture, watching a movie) is still learning, and can be effective.

Learning Leads to Lasting Change

Learning means retaining the knowledge that you gained. If you see that new vocabulary word in another context, you will understand its meaning. If the toilet starts running again in the future, you may need to watch the video again to refresh your memory on how to fix it, but you have some knowledge of what to do.

Learning Occurs As a Result of Experience

The learning process begins when you have a new experience, whether that is reading a new word, listening to someone explain a concept, or trying a new method for solving a problem. Once you’ve tried a technique for boiling eggs or a different route to work, you can determine whether it works for you and then use it in the future.

Learning Can Affect Attitudes, Knowledge, or Behavior

There’s far more to learning than “book learning.” Yes, you can learn new words, concepts, and facts. But you can also learn how to do things and how to feel about things.

It’s important to remember that learning can involve both beneficial and negative behaviors. Learning is a natural and ongoing part of life that takes place continually, both for better and for worse.

Sometimes learning means becoming more knowledgeable and leading a better life. In other instances, it means learning behaviors that are detrimental to health and well-being.

How Learning Works

The process of learning is not always the same. Learning can happen in a wide variety of ways. To explain how and when learning occurs, psychologists have proposed a number of different theories.

Learning Through Classical Conditioning

Learning through association is one of the most fundamental ways that people learn new things.3 Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov discovered one method of learning during his experiments on the digestive systems of dogs. He noted that the dogs would naturally salivate at the sight of food, but that eventually the dogs also began to salivate whenever they spotted the experimenter’s white lab coat.

Later experiments involved pairing the sight of food with the sound of a bell tone. After multiple pairings, the dogs eventually began to salivate to the sound of the bell alone.

Classical conditioning is a type of learning that takes place through the formation of associations.

An unconditioned stimulus that naturally and automatically triggers a response is paired with an neutral stimulus. Eventually, an association forms and the previously neutral stimulus becomes known as a conditioned stimulus that then triggers a conditioned response.

Learning Through Operant Conditioning

The consequences of your actions can also play a role in determining how and what you learn. Behaviorist B.F. Skinner noted that while classical conditioning could be used to explain some types of learning, it could not account for everything. Instead, he suggested that reinforcements and punishments were responsible for some types of learning.

When something immediately follows a behavior, it can either increase or decrease the likelihood that the behavior will occur again in the future. This process is referred to as operant conditioning.4

For example, imagine that you just got a new puppy, and you would like to begin training it to behave in specific ways. Whenever the puppy does what you want it to do, you reward it with a small treat or a gentle pat. When the puppy misbehaves, you scold him and do not offer affection. Eventually, the reinforcement leads to an increase in the desired behaviors and a decrease in the unwanted behaviors.

Learning Through Observation

While classical conditioning and operant conditioning can help explain many instances of learning, you can probably immediately think of situations where you have learned something without being conditioned, reinforced, or punished.

Psychologist Albert Bandura noted that many types of learning do not involve any conditioning and, in fact, evidence that learning has occurred might not even be immediately apparent.

Observational learning occurs by observing the actions and consequences of other people’s behavior (such as with latent learning).

In a series of famous experiments, Bandura was able to demonstrate the power of this observational learning. Children watched video clips of adults interacting with a large, inflatable Bobo doll. In some instances, the adults simply ignored the doll, while in other clips the adults would hit, kick and yell at the doll.

When kids were later given the chance to play within a room with a Bobo doll present, those who had observed the adults abusing the doll were more likely to engage in similar actions.


Learning doesn’t always come easily. Sometimes, you must overcome obstacles in order to gain new knowledge. These obstacles may take several different forms.

Environmental Challenges

Access to learning opportunities and aspects of the learning environment play a role in how people learn. These can be big or small challenges. If you can’t find instructions or locate someone to ask about your running toilet, you don’t have the opportunity to learn how to fix it. In the classroom and the workplace, you may face physical, cultural, or economic barriers that inhibit your ability to learn.5

Cognitive Challenges

Cognitive factors affect the learning process, For example, the ability to memorize or attend to information can either facilitate or hinder learning. Specific learning disabilities, such as dyslexia, affect the way knowledge is processed and retained.

Motivational Challenges

Motivation, including both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. can affect how much people learn. People with a strong intrinsic motivation to learn feel compelled to learn for learning’s sake. They do not need rewards, such as grades or prizes, to feel motivated to learn.

Of course, this may only apply to certain skills or subjects. Someone may need extrinsic motivators to complete math homework, for example, but be intrinsically motivated to research their family history. Challenges with motivation can stem from ADHD, depression, and other mental health conditions.

How to Improve Learning

Whether you are involved in formal education or not, you are always learning throughout your life. And there are strategies you can use to improve how you learn and how well you retain and apply what you have learned.

First, keep learning. Learning is a skill that can be practiced. One study of older adults found that learning a new skill improved working memory, episodic memory, and reasoning. And the harder the new skill (participants learned quilting, digital photography, or both), the more it strengthened their brains.6

Learn in multiple ways. If you want to learn a new language, you might use an app that offers lessons in various aspects: Reading, listening, and speaking. But you might also listen to a podcast in the new language while you are taking a walk, or practice writing new vocabulary words by hand. Similarly, it helps to review information frequently and to use memorization techniques.

Another smart way to promote learning: Teach. When you show how a friend how to play tennis, for example, you’re reinforcing what you know by sharing it. You must revisit the basics that were once new to you and present them to your student.

A Word From Verywell

Learning is not a one-dimensional process. It takes place in many different ways and there are a wide variety of factors that can influence how and what people learn.1 While people often focus on the observable and measurable ways that learning takes place, it is also important to remember that we cannot always immediately detect what has been learned. People are capable of learning concepts and skills that are not immediately observable.

Definition, Characteristics and Types of Learning in Psychology

Definition, Characteristics and Types of Learning in Psychology

Definition, Characteristics and Types of Learning in Psychology The process of learning is continuous which starts right from the time of birth of an individual and continues till the death. We all are engaged in the learning endeavours in order to develop our adaptive capabilities as per the requirements of the changing environment.

For a learning to occur, two things are important:

  1. The presence of a stimulus in the environment and
  2. The innate dispositions like emotional and instinctual dispositions.

A person keeps on learning across all the stages of life, by constructing or reconstructing experiences under the influence of emotional and instinctual dispositions.

Psychologists in general define Learning as relatively permanent behavioural modifications which take place as a result of experience. This definition of learning stresses on three important elements of learning:

  • Learning involves a behavioural change which can be better or worse.
  • This behavioural change should take place as a result of practice and experience. Changes resulting from maturity or growth cannot be considered as learning
  • This behavioural change must be relatively permanent and last for a relatively long time enough.

John B Watson is one amongst the first thinkers who has proven that behavioural changes occur as a result of learning. Watson is believed to be the founder of Behavioural school of thought, which gained its prominence or acceptability around the first half of the 20th century.

Gales defined Learning as the behavioural modification which occurs as a result of experience as well as training.

Crow and Crow defined learning as the process of acquisition of knowledge, habits and attitudes.

According to E.A, Peel, Learning can be described as a change in the individual which takes place as a result of the environmental change.

H.J. Klausmeir described Learning as a process which leads to some behavioural change as a result of some experience, training, observation, activity, etc.

The key characteristics of the learning process are:

  1. When described in the simplest possible manner, learning is described as an experience acquisition process.
  2. In the complex form, learning can be described as process of acquisition, retention and modification of experience.
  3. It re-establishes the relationship between a stimulus and response.
  4. It is a method of problem solving and is concerned about making adjustments with the environment.
  5. It involves all those gamut of activities which may have a relatively permanent effect on the individual.
  6. The process of learning is concerned about experience acquisition, retention of experiences, and experience development in a step by step manner, synthesis of both old and new experiences for creating a new pattern.
  7. Learning is concerned about cognitive, conative and affective aspects. Knowledge acquisition process is cognitive, any change in the emotions is affective and conative is acquisition of new habits or skills.

Types of Learning

  1. Motor Learning: Our day to day activities like walking, running, driving, etc, must be learnt for ensuring a good life. These activities to a great extent involve muscular coordination.
  2. Verbal Learning: It is related with the language which we use to communicate and various other forms of verbal communication such as symbols, words, languages, sounds, figures and signs.
  3. Concept Learning: This form of learning is associated with higher order cognitive processes like intelligence, thinking, reasoning, etc, which we learn right from our childhood. Concept learning involves the processes of abstraction and generalization, which is very useful for identifying or recognizing things.
  4. Discrimination Learning: Learning which distinguishes between various stimuli with its appropriate and different responses is regarded as discrimination stimuli.
  5. Learning of Principles: Learning which is based on principles helps in managing the work most effectively. Principles based learning explains the relationship between various concepts.
  6. Attitude Learning: Attitude shapes our behaviour to a very great extent, as our positive or negative behaviour is based on our attitudinal predisposition.

3 Types of Behavioural Learning

The Behavioural School of Thought which was founded by John B Watson which was highlighted in his seminal work, “Psychology as the Behaviorist View It”, stressed on the fact that Psychology is an objective science, hence mere emphasis on the mental processes should not be considered as such processes cannot be objectively measured or observed.

Watson tried to prove his theory with the help of his famous Little Albert Experiment, by way of which he conditioned a small kid to be scared of a white rat. The behavioural psychology described three types of learning: Classical Conditioning, Observational Learning and Operant Conditioning.

1. Classical Conditioning: In case of Classical Conditioning, the process of learning is described as a Stimulus-Response connection or association.

Classical Conditioning theory has been explained with the help of Pavlov’s Classic Experiment, in which the food was used as the natural stimulus which was paired with the previously neutral stimuli that’s a bell in this case. By establishing an association between the natural stimulus (food) and the neutral stimuli (sound of the bell), the desired response can be elicited. This theory will be discussed in detail in the next few articles.

2. Operant Conditioning: Propounded by scholars like Edward Thorndike firstly and later by B.F. Skinner, this theory stresses on the fact that the consequences of actions shape the behaviour.

The theory explains that the intensity of a response is either increased or decreased as a result of punishment or reinforcement. Skinner explained how with the help of reinforcement one can strengthen behaviour and with punishment reduce or curb behaviour. It was also analyzed that the behavioural change strongly depends on the schedules of reinforcement with focus on timing and rate of reinforcement.

3. Observational Learning: The Observational Learning process was propounded by Albert Bandura in his Social Learning Theory, which focused on learning by imitation or observing people’s behaviour. For observational learning to take place effectively, four important elements will be essential: Motivation, Attention, Memory and Motor Skills.

5 Ways to Be Smart that You Must Try

5 Ways to Be Smart that You Must Try

5 Ways to Be Smart that You Must Try – You know, studying isn’t the only way to be smart. You can also be smart in a variety of other ways, you know, for example by socializing or making friends with people with different characters.

Intelligence can make a person have critical and open thinking, high curiosity, social spirit, and able to empathize.

In addition, smart people often appear more attractive to others. In fact, there are types of sexual orientation whose main interest is based on the level of intelligence (sapiosexual).

To hone this intelligence, you need to do a number of ways, both academic and non-academic.

Various Ways to Be Smart

Here are ways to be smart that you can try:

1. Apply a healthy lifestyle

A healthy lifestyle does not only affect physical and mental health, but also the level of intelligence. Research proves that people who adopt a healthy lifestyle by exercising regularly experience increased activity in the hippocampus, which is the part of the brain that plays a role in remembering and understanding things.

Apart from exercising regularly, another healthy lifestyle that you must adopt as a way to be smart is to eat foods that can support brain function, such as omega fatty acids, vitamin K, and flavonoid compounds. These nutrients can be obtained from the following foods:

  • Seafood, such as mackerel, anchovies, sardines, or shellfish
  • Fruits, such as avocado, rambutan, cantaloupe, salak, or oranges
  • Vegetables, such as spinach, mustard greens, or cabbage
  • Seeds, such as flaxseed or soybeans
  • Besides that, don’t forget to get enough sleep, OK? Adequate sleep can improve brain function in learning information and increase productivity.

2. Do meditation

The next way to be smart is to meditate regularly. Meditation is proven to have a good effect on brain function, such as improving focus and memory, and helping you to understand things more easily.

In addition, meditation can also reduce levels of stress hormones, so that your body and mind can be more relaxed. Meditation can be done for 10–20 minutes in the morning before activities, during lunch breaks, at night before going to bed, or after exercising.

3. Try new things

Try exploring other things that you have never done. Besides adding skills, trying new things can also make you smarter. For example, learning to play a musical instrument can help improve brain function while protecting nerve cells from damage.

Another example is routine reading books. This activity can stimulate the brain so that it can improve focus, memory, and add insight. Apart from that, you can also play games that can sharpen your brain, such as crosswords or word order.

4. Be social

To be smarter, you also need to socialize. Meeting and exchanging ideas with friends or new people can add insight, build a network (networking), as well as relieve stress. You can start socializing by joining a sports club or volunteering.

5. Keep learning

Don’t be satisfied with the knowledge you have, OK? There are still many new things out there that you can learn and make you smarter.

Apart from continuing your formal education, you can gain new knowledge from listening to podcasts, attending workshops, reading books, or reading information from social media accounts.

Those are the five ways to be smart that you can do. Remember, being smart cannot be realized in just one night. You have to make lifestyle changes and study hard consistently to become a smart person.

If you have problems socializing, find it difficult to do new things, or have other things that can hinder your path to becoming a smart person, consult a psychologist for the right advice.

4 Steps to Success in Education and the Future

4 Steps to Success in Education and the Future

4 Steps to Success in Education and the Future – Want to be successful but still confused about how? This article is right for you because it provides the best steps for success in education and in the future. What are the steps? Let’s find out here!

In terms of achieving success, maybe many of you can relate to the memes above. Every time before going to sleep, you imagine the success that you want to achieve, but it’s not as fun when you think about having to try. Maybe it’s not that you don’t want to try, but you’re confused about what you should actually do.

So, if you are still confused, this article is perfect for you. Because, this time I will share four ways to be successful in education and in the future

Without further ado, let’s get started!

Learn How To Learn

Learning is indeed a very important process in life, especially if you want to have expertise in a certain field. From simple things like being able to walk to just running through the learning process.

Mahatma Gandhi also once gave advice to take advantage of the time you have to study because life is not forever. The advice he gave through the expression below.

So, to support your learning success, learning the right way of learning for you is also necessary, you know. This is what people often miss. I used to get dizzy thinking about the amount of material that needed to be studied but didn’t prepare for an effective and efficient way of learning. As a result, maybe after a few days I already forgot what I learned.

As reported on the page of The New Zealand Curriculum Update (2012), learning how to learn is very important so that a person does not depend on other people for learning. By knowing your best way of learning, you can proactively find the information and learning media you need.

There are various ways to learn on your own. You might want to try reading about self-learning models so that you get used to controlling yourself and your environment so you don’t hinder the learning process.

In addition, citing a report from Rasmussen University, students can study in four different ways. Can learn through visual media such as pictures and videos, through sound, direct experience, or the process of reading and writing. So, you can observe which way of learning is best for you.

If in your opinion one method is not stable, you can also combine several methods in your learning process. In the words of an American cognitive scientist, Marvin Misky, “You will not understand anything until you learn it in more than one way.”

Learning how to learn is also included in the framework of success. If you want to know more about the importance of how to learn, you can check out the cool video below.

Time Discipline

This time discipline is related to your time management. How do you divide your time and allocate it to study something or even work. So, if the time is set, what you do is be disciplined in fulfilling it.

How long is the effective study time? According to the Thoughtco report (2019), a good length of time for one study session is at least one hour. But it also depends on how much material you have to learn. If one hour is less, you can make several sessions by inserting breaks between each session.

Oh, but I’m a person who likes to procrastinate and if I study or work I don’t last long. Calm. You can really use the Pomodoro study technique, a technique for managing study time with a timer that is equipped with rest periods while at the same time strengthening your determination to study (Francesco Cirillo, 2018).

To know more about this technique, you can read this article entitled “Help Students Learn Effectively with the Pomodoro Technique – for Teachers”.

Not Afraid to Fail

As reported by Verywell Mind (2021), the fear of failure or atychiphobia, usually arises as a response to a situation or because of self-perfectionism.

Well, one sign of fear is an attitude that tends to avoid. So, that’s why if you’re afraid of failing to win, maybe you’ll choose not to take part in the competition at all.

In pursuing success, be it in the world of education or career, don’t let your fear frustrate your dreams. Even Jerome Polin, an Indonesian YouTuber who is included in the Forbes 30 Under 30 2021 list, has also experienced failure. Check out the article entitled Jerome Polin, Failure Becomes the Beginning of Success to know his story.

To overcome fear, you can increase your courage. According to a report from The Atlantic, you can increase your courage by focusing on what’s in the moment, and simulating something before you actually have to do it.

Purpose Driven Not Just Profit Driven

Purpose driven means that the drive you have to do something is your personal goal. Meanwhile, if it is profit driven, it is profit or money that gives you encouragement.

So, if we talk about the urge to do something, we will refer to what is called motivation. As reported by Verywell Mind (2020), if you still base what you do on the benefits that you can get from the outside world, such as money, it means that your motivation is not internal motivation but external motivation or rewards.

Well, according to research, intrinsic motivation can be a predictor for better quality work, you know. With intrinsic motivation, your spirit will be stronger because, as reported by Forbes (2018), having a purpose means you are ready to immerse yourself in that goal. From realizing that goal, you will get its own satisfaction.

So, those were the 4 steps to success that I can share. You can apply these four steps or methods both in the world of education or career so you can achieve success.

And, don’t forget to take action to apply everything you have learned and prepared because as Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe, a famous German writer said, “In the end, what is remembered from a learning process is only what is directly applied in practice.”

Definition of Learning: Characteristics, Types, and Purpose

Definition of Learning: Characteristics, Types, and Purpose

Definition of Learning: Characteristics, Types, and Purpose – Definition of learning – Every human being must have the desire to be a smart person. To become a smart person will definitely require a continuous learning process. The process of becoming a smart person is then by doing learning activities. On this occasion, we will review the meaning, characteristics, types and objectives of learning in more detail. Check this out!

Definition of Learning

What is meant by learning? Learning is a process or effort made by each individual to get changes in behavior, both in the form of knowledge, skills, as well as attitudes and positive values ​​as an experience from various materials that have been studied.

In addition, the definition of learning can also be interpreted as all psychological activities that are then carried out by each individual, so that his behavior is different between before and after learning. This change in behavior can occur due to new experiences, having intelligence or knowledge after learning, and practicing activities.

The meaning of self-study is a process of changing one’s personality where this change occurs in the form of improving the quality of behavior, such as increasing knowledge, skills, thinking, understanding, attitudes, and in various other abilities.

In the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), learning is trying to gain intelligence or knowledge. In addition, according to KBBI, learning is changing behavior or responses caused by experience.

Definition of Learning According to Experts

Some experts also express the notion of learning, namely:

M. Sobry Sutikno

According to M. Sobry Sutikno, the notion of learning is a business process carried out by a person in obtaining a change which is then only as a result of his own experience in interaction with his environment. In this case, change is something that is done consciously (intentionally) and aims to get something better than before.

Tours of Hakim

According to Thursan Hakim, the definition of learning is a process of change in human personality which is shown in the form of increasing the quality and quantity of behavior such as increasing skills, knowledge, attitudes, habits, understanding, skills, thinking power, and various other abilities.


According to Skinner, the notion of learning is a process of adaptation or adjustment of behavior that applies progressively.

C. T. Morgan

According to CT Morgan, the notion of learning is a relatively later change in determining behavior as a result or as a result of past experience.

Hilgard & Bower

According to Hilgard & Bower, the notion of learning is a change in a person’s behavior towards a certain situation which is then caused by repeated experiences in that situation.

Study Features

After discussing the meaning of learning, in order to understand more about learning, we need to know the characteristics of learning. Below will explain some of the characteristics of learning that you need to know.

1. Duration or Time

The characteristics of the first learning is the duration or time in learning activities. The time for learning itself is arguably not short. In other words, requires a process in order to know the results of learning.

2.Contains Social Interaction

With the learning process, it will create social interaction. This is not without reason, because when learning someone certainly does not do it alone.

3. There is a change in behavior

The next learning characteristics are changes in a person’s behavior. The changes in behavior can be like psychomotor, affective, cognitive, and so on. Changes in behavior itself are permanent and some are temporary.

Types of Learning

In the teaching and learning process, it is also known that there are various activities which then have a different pattern from one to another, both in terms of material and methods as well as in aspects of goals and changes in expected behavior. The diversity of this type of learning itself appears in the world of education in line with the needs of human life which are also very diverse. Types of learning include:

1. Learning Abstract

Abstract learning is a learning process that uses abstract ways of thinking. The goal is to gain understanding and solve non-existent problems. In studying these abstract matters, then the role of a strong mind is needed in addition to mastery over principles, concepts, and generalizations. Examples of learning that fall under this type include studying mathematics, chemistry, cosmography, astronomy and some material in the field of religious studies such as monotheism.

2. Learning Skills

Learning skills is learning by using motor movements, namely those related to the nerves and muscles (neuromuscular). The goal is to acquire and master certain physical skills.

In learning this type of intensive and regular exercises are needed. This type of learning includes learning sports, learning music, learning to dance, learning to paint, repairing electronic objects, as well as some religious subject matter such as prayer and pilgrimage.

3. Social Learning

Social learning is basically learning to understand problems and techniques for solving these problems. The purpose of social learning is to master understanding and skills in solving social problems such as family problems, friendship problems, groups, and various other social problems.

In addition, social learning also aims to regulate personal impulses for the sake of the common interest and provide opportunities for other people or other groups to meet their needs in a balanced and proportionate manner. Fields of study included in social studies materials include religious studies and moral education.

4. Rational Learning

Rational learning is learning by using the ability to think logically and rationally (according to common sense). The aim of this type of learning is to acquire a variety of skills using principles and concepts. In addition, this type of learning is also very closely related to learning problem solving.

By learning rationally, students are then expected to have rational problem solving skills, namely the ability to solve problems using common sense, logical, systematic considerations and strategies.

Fields of study that can then be used as rational learning tools are the same as fields of study for learning a problem solving. The difference is that rational learning does not put special pressure and uses exact fields of study. In other words, non-exact fields of study can give the same effect as exact fields of study in the rational learning process.

5. Learn Habits

Learning habits is a process of forming new habits or improving existing habits. Learning habits, in addition to using orders, role models, and special experiences, also uses punishment and rewards.

The purpose of this type of learning is for students to acquire new attitudes and habits that are more appropriate and positive in the sense that they are aligned with the needs of space and time (contextual). In this case, the precise and harmonious meaning can be linked to the prevailing norms and moral values, both religious, traditional and cultural.

6. Learn Appreciation

Appreciation learning is the process of learning to consider (judgment) the importance or value of an object. The goal is for students to acquire and develop affective skills, namely the ability to appreciate accurately the value of a particular object, for example in the appreciation of literature, music, and so on.

Fields of study that can support the achievement of self-appreciation learning objectives include language and literature, crafts, and the arts. Apart from that, in the field of religion, you can also use this type of learning appreciation, for example memorizing holy books.

7. Learning Knowledge

Learning knowledge (study) is a learning process by conducting in-depth investigation of a particular object of knowledge. This study can also be interpreted as a planned learning program to be able to master the subject matter by involving investigative and experimental activities.

Learning Objectives

As mentioned in the definition of learning above, the main purpose of learning activities is to acquire and improve human behavior in the form of knowledge, skills, positive attitudes, and various other abilities. According to Sardiman (2011: 26-28), in general there are three learning objectives, including:

1. To Gain Knowledge

The results of this learning activity can be characterized by an increase in one’s thinking ability. So, besides you have new knowledge, the learning process will also make your thinking skills better.

In this case, knowledge will also improve one’s thinking ability, and vice versa this thinking ability will develop through the knowledge that has been learned. In other words, knowledge and thinking skills are inseparable.

2. Instill Concepts and Skills

Instill the skills possessed by each individual through the learning process. Planting this concept really requires skills, both physical and spiritual skills. In this case, physical skill is an individual ability in observable appearance and movement. This skill itself is related to technical matters or repetition.

Meanwhile, spiritual skills tend to be even more complex because they are more abstract in nature. This skill is related to appreciation, way of thinking, and creativity in solving problems or creating a concept.

3. Shaping Attitudes

Learning activities can also shape a person’s attitude. In this case, the formation of the mental attitude of students will be closely related to the inculcation of values ​​so as to foster awareness within a person. In the process of cultivating the mental attitude, behavior and personality of students, a teacher must take a wise and careful approach. Teachers must be able to be an example for students and have skills in providing motivation and directing thinking.

Thus the discussion about the notion of learning to learning objectives. After reading this article to the end, I hope it is useful and can add to your insight. If you want to find a book about learning, then you can get it

To support this article in adding insight, we always provide quality and original books so that we have #MoreWithReading information.


Overcoming Learning Barriers with Digital Technology

Overcoming Learning Barriers with Digital Technology

Overcoming Learning Barriers with Digital Technology

Future education trends are increasingly utilizing digital technology to personalize learning. However, the digitization of education in Indonesia still faces various challenges in terms of teachers and infrastructure.

Personalized and accessible learning makes learning fun for everyone and enables students to learn independently throughout their lives. This is the future of education that can be benefited from the development of digital technology, including the presence of artificial intelligence.

The Sinombayuga State Junior High School (SMP) located on the coast of Tomini Bay in South Bolaang Mongondow Regency, North Sulawesi, was unable to catch a signal, alias entered the blankspot area for 4G. In fact, even school electricity can go out indefinitely. When teachers need an internet connection, they have to be away from the school.

However, in 2021, schools will receive assistance of 45 units of chromebooks, laptops or portable computers running the ChromeOS operating system from Google, to support learning. In addition, there are routers and projectors sent to schools from a special allocation fund budget.

“Schools are happy, but confused about how to use it for learning because of internet network constraints,” said Salehuddin, Natural Sciences (IPA) teacher at SMP Negeri Sinombayuga, while sharing stories at the Google for Education event, Leader Series Indonesia 2023, in Jakarta, Wednesday (24/5/2023).

Salehuddin and the teachers thought hard about being able to take advantage of digital technology assistance for education. They believe the use of technology will help teachers to encourage students to be happy and interested in learning.

Internet network constraints had discouraged. After thinking hard, Salehuddin succeeded in utilizing the help of a chromebook to present offline or offline learning that felt online or online.

Schools are happy, but are confused about how to use them for learning because they are constrained by the internet network.

Schools also use a network with a local area network (LAN), which so far has only been used to carry out a computer-based national assessment once every year. Furthermore, textbooks and digital reading materials to learning videos are downloaded on chromebooks, including a virtual laboratory from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Research and Technology (Kemendikbudristek) portal.

Even though they are in remote areas, students can already learn with digital technology at school. When studying, the teachers divide students into several groups and distribute chromebooks that are used for learning, while the teacher facilitates discussions.

Salehuddin said he was shocked because the students screamed. At that time, practicum students made electrical circuits in a virtual laboratory which was accessed from a chromebook. There was a student who inserted the wrong battery causing an explosion that shocked the students.

“Fortunately the practice is in a virtual laboratory, so it’s safe. I can repeat again. The teacher also reminded them not to be afraid of making mistakes and to try until they succeed. Learning offline feels like online at school so it’s fun,” said Olpa Manil, one of the students, sharing her experiences via video.

The availability of digital learning in schools provides opportunities for many children to experience learning in a fun way. There are students who don’t have gadgets, have never used a laptop or portable computer, thanks to the Chromebook facility at school, students are getting used to independent learning. When they don’t understand the material, they can play the learning videos repeatedly.

”The digital technology in our school seems simple compared to the one in the city. However, in this way, we can prepare students to be ready to study in cities, no longer strangers to digital technology,” said Salehuddin.

Students with special needs

The use of digital technology to bring equality to access quality and fun learning is not only felt by students in remote areas, even those with limited internet network strength. For children with special needs, the presence of digital technology also overcomes learning barriers.

Darma Kusumah, Social Sciences (IPS) teacher at State 11 Special School (SLB) Jakarta, admitted that he was confused when he had to teach deaf students. Although a bachelor’s degree in special education, he is better equipped to teach students with visual impairments.

Overcoming these obstacles, Darma makes use of the voice typing feature when teaching deaf students. Even in the classroom, the Google Meet application is also used so that Darma can still interact with deaf students without using sign language.

Learning can also be presented with visualizations that interest students. Darma had experienced difficulties getting students with severe mental retardation to want to study. The student often goes out while studying. “Because there is a chromebook facility at school, I try to get students to study. These mentally retarded students become calmer and more active in participating in learning with their friends and are more easily persuaded without excessive emotions,” he said.

However, Darma had difficulty dealing with mentally retarded students’ learning methods when presenting abstract material. When explaining the round earth material, for example, Darma no longer uses a globe. He invited students to open Google Earth which presented an interesting visualization. “I try to ask questions that can captivate. I can use Google’s technological features for student learning,” said Darma.

Support for students with special needs is also carried out through digital technology vocational education programs. One of them is digital skills training support from the Laptop for Builders program conducted by AWS with the Sagasitas Foundation and other organizations. In addition, it is also given to high school/madrasah aliyah students and Islamic boarding schools.

Some time ago, Director of AWS Training and Certification Asia Pacific and Japan Andrew Sklar explained AWS’ efforts to improve talent skills, with an emphasis on a local program specifically for Indonesia, namely Laptop for Builders, starting in 2020 during the Covid-19 pandemic. The program has trained more than 300,000 students.

The Laptop for Builders program is provided free of charge to provide course materials on web design and cloud basics in Indonesian, then donate laptops to support learning infrastructure. Furthermore, these instructors will distribute training materials and laptops to schools across the country.

Education trend

Vice President and General Manager of Google for Education Shantanu Sinha said, the transformation of Indonesian education by utilizing digital technology gives hope to answer education in the future. For the Leader Series event planned by Google for Education in several countries, Indonesia was chosen as the first country to hold this event. The event will also be held in South Korea, Japan, Australia and Taiwan.

On this occasion, the central government, regional leaders, regional education offices, educators, and the business world can learn from each other about the future of learning with the presence of technology, one of which is Google’s commitment. There are various experiences and good practices from Indonesia, Japan, and New Zealand regarding the use of digital technology to support the advancement of education that is relevant in preparing future generations to be different from previous times.

Shantanu added, there are three trends that determine the future of education, namely personalizing the learning process, improving the quality of teachers, and shifting to a lifelong learning mindset. Teachers already understand the need to personalize learning because each person is unique from motivation, learning method, to learning speed. However, doing so is not easy and takes time because of the large number of students and requires more effort.

In meetings, for example, there were complaints from teachers who felt they were not supported regarding strengthening competence in the use of digital technology in learning. The chromebook distribution program to schools has been massive, but school readiness varies.

The benefits of these facilities have been felt by educators and students because they are optimized for learning and administration. On the other hand, there are also many facilities that have not been used, or are only used for administrative matters, because teachers have not been trained to use them.

In order to support the transformation of education in the world, especially in Indonesia which is currently changing, Google released the report “The Future of Indonesian Education: Five Themes”. The five themes include improving the conditions of the learning environment, increasing teacher digital literacy, reducing administrative burdens, contextual learning experiences, and encouraging student-centered independent learning.

Indonesia needs to improve the conditions of the learning environment by supporting the development of digital infrastructure alongside critical thinking training to help students explore the new digital world. Another thing, increasing teachers’ digital literacy so that they better understand technology and apply it in the classroom effectively.

According to Shantanu, Google for Education also helps teachers collaborate with the Google Educators Group. The Ministry of Education and Culture did the same thing with the presence of the Merdeka Teaching Platform. ”Free Learning with Free Curriculum recognizes the uniqueness of each student in learning. Technology was developed to support teachers to be able to personalize learning in a fun way for each student,” he said.

Meanwhile, Minister of Education, Culture, Research and Technology Nadiem Anwar Makarim said Merdeka Learning was the biggest educational transformation in Indonesian history. The Independent Curriculum can be voluntarily implemented in more than 300,000 educational units. There is support for educators and schools to implement it with the Merdeka Mengajar platform. Digital platform support is provided from financial reporting, national assessments, to educational evaluations.